新西兰大学坎特伯雷大学社会学ASSIGNMENT代写:隐含偏见

隐含的偏见是关于社会群体的任何无意识持有的一组关联。隐性偏见可以导致特定品质归因于该群体中的所有个体,也称为刻板印象。隐性偏见是学习社团和社会条件的产物。它们通常从很小的时候开始,大多数人都不知道他们持有它们。重要的是,这些偏见不一定与个人身份一致。有可能无意识地将积极或消极的特征与自己的种族,性别或背景联系起来。社会心理学家Mahzarin Banaji和Tony Greenwald在20世纪90年代首次创造了隐性偏见一词。 1995年,他们发表了隐性社会认知理论,认为个体的社会行为和偏见主要与无意识或隐性判断有关。该术语在1998年越来越受欢迎,当时Banaji和Greenwald开发了众所周知的内隐联想测验(IAT)来证实他们的假设。 IAT测试通过计算机程序评估无意识偏见的强度。要求受试者观察一个屏幕,该屏幕显示来自不同种族背景的一系列面孔以及一系列正面和负面的单词。研究人员告诉受试者,当他们从种族背景X看到一张脸时,点击正面的单词,当他们看到种族背景Y的面部时,他们会点击负面词。然后,他们改变了关联,并让受试者重复这个过程。研究人员认为,更快地点击意味着受试者具有更大的无意识联想。换句话说,在观看某个面部时快速点击“快乐”意味着该个体在正面特征和种族之间具有密切的无意识关联。较慢的点击时间意味着个人更难以将积极特征与种族联系起来。随着时间的推移,IAT已在多个后续试验中成功复制,证明其在证明隐性偏倚方面的功效。除了种族偏见之外,该测试还成功用于评估与性别和性取向相关的隐性偏见。

新西兰大学坎特伯雷大学社会学Assignment代写:隐含偏见

An implicit bias is any unconsciously-held set of associations about a social group. Implicit biases can result in the attribution of particular qualities to all individuals from that group, also known as stereotyping. Implicit biases are the product of learned associations and social conditioning. They often begin at a young age, and most people are unaware that they hold them. Importantly, these biases do not necessarily align with personal identity. It’s possible to unconsciously associate positive or negative traits with one’s own race, gender, or background. Social psychologists Mahzarin Banaji and Tony Greenwald first coined the term implicit bias in the 1990s. In 1995, they published their theory of implicit social cognition, which asserted that individuals’ social behavior and biases are largely related to unconscious, or implicit, judgments. The term grew in popularity in 1998, when Banaji and Greenwald developed the well-known Implicit Association Test (IAT) to confirm their hypothesis. The IAT test assessed the strength of unconscious biases through a computer program. Subjects were asked to observe a screen that displayed a series of faces from different racial backgrounds and a series of positive and negative words. Researchers told the subjects to click on the positive words when they saw a face from racial background X, and the negative words when they saw a face from racial background Y. Then, they reversed the association and had subjects repeat the process. The researchers argued that clicking more quickly meant that the subject had a greater unconscious association. In other words, quickly clicking “happy” when viewing a certain face meant that the individual had a close unconscious association between the positive trait and the race. A slower click time means that the individual had more difficulty associating that the positive trait with the race. Over time, the IAT has been replicated successfully in multiple subsequent trials, demonstrating its efficacy in proving implicit bias. In addition to racial bias, the test has also been used successfully to assess implicit bias related to gender and sexual orientation.

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