美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学经济学ASSIGNMENT代写:财富形式

你会认为对金钱的需求是无限的。谁不想要更多的钱?要记住的关键是财富不是金钱。对财富的集体需求是无限的,因为从来没有足够的东西满足每个人的欲望。货币,如“美国人均货币供应量是多少?”是一个狭义的术语,包括纸币、旅行支票和储蓄账户。它不包括股票和债券之类的东西,也不包括房屋、绘画和汽车等形式的财富。因为金钱只是许多财富形式中的一种,所以它有很多替代品。货币及其替代品之间的相互作用解释了货币需求变化的原因。两个更重要的财富储备是债券和货币。这两项是替代品,因为货币是用来购买债券的,而债券是用来兑换货币的。这两种方法各有不同。货币通常只支付很少的利息(对于纸币,完全没有),但它可以用来购买商品和服务。债券确实支付利息,但不能用于购买,因为债券必须首先转换成货币。如果债券支付与货币相同的利率,没有人会购买债券,因为它们比货币更方便。由于债券支付利息,人们将使用他们的一些钱购买债券。利率越高,债券就越有吸引力。因此,利率的上升导致债券需求上升,而货币需求下降,因为货币正在兑换债券。因此,利率的下降导致货币需求上升。这直接关系到第四个因素:“对商品的需求上升”。在消费支出上升的时期,比如圣诞节前的一个月,人们经常用其他形式的财富,如股票和债券兑换现金。他们想要钱来购买商品和服务,比如圣诞礼物。因此,如果对消费支出的需求增加,那么对货币的需求也会增加。如果人们认为他们会在不久的将来突然需要买东西(比如说1999年,他们担心Y2K),他们会卖出债券和股票,并持有货币,所以对货币的需求将会上升。如果人们认为在不久的将来会有机会以非常低的成本购买资产,他们也会选择持有资金。如果迅速买进和卖出股票和债券变得困难或昂贵,它们就不那么可取了。人们希望以货币的形式持有更多的财富,所以对货币的需求将会增加。如果我们有通货膨胀,商品就会变得更贵,所以对货币的需求也会增加。有趣的是,持有货币的水平往往会以与价格相同的速度上升。因此,虽然名义货币需求上升,但实际需求保持不变。(要了解名义需求与实际需求的区别,请参见“名义需求与实际需求有什么区别?”

美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学经济学Assignment代写:财富形式

You would think that the need for money is infinite. Who doesn’t want more money? The key to remember is that wealth is not money. The collective need for wealth is infinite, because there is never enough to satisfy everyone’s desire. Money, such as “What is the money supply per capita in the United States?” It is a narrow term, including banknotes, traveler’s checks and savings accounts. It does not include stocks and bonds, or wealth in the form of houses, paintings and cars. Because money is only one of many forms of wealth, it has many substitutes. The interaction between money and its substitutes explains the change in money demand. Two more important wealth reserves are bonds and currencies. These two are alternatives, because money is used to buy bonds, and bonds are used to exchange money. The two methods are different. Money usually pays very little interest (not at all for paper money), but it can be used to buy goods and services. Bonds do pay interest, but they cannot be purchased because they must first be converted into money. If bonds pay the same interest rate as currencies, no one will buy bonds because they are more convenient than currencies. Because bonds pay interest, people will use some of their money to buy bonds. The higher the interest rate, the more attractive the bond will be. As a result, the rise in interest rates has led to a rise in bond demand, while the demand for money has fallen, as currencies are converting into bonds. As a result, the fall in interest rates has led to an increase in money demand. This is directly related to the fourth factor: “rising demand for goods”. During periods of rising consumer spending, such as the month before Christmas, people often exchange other forms of wealth, such as stocks and bonds, for cash. They want money to buy goods and services, such as Christmas gifts. Therefore, if the demand for consumer spending increases, the demand for money will also increase. If people think they will suddenly need to buy something in the near future (for example, in 1999, they worried about Y2K), they will sell bonds and stocks and hold money, so the demand for money will rise. If people think there will be opportunities to buy assets at very low cost in the near future, they will also choose to hold funds. If buying and selling stocks and bonds quickly becomes difficult or expensive, they are less desirable. People want to hold more wealth in the form of money, so the demand for money will increase. If we have inflation, commodities will become more expensive, so the demand for money will increase. Interestingly, the level of holding money tends to rise at the same rate as the price. Therefore, although nominal money demand is rising, real demand remains unchanged. (To understand the difference between nominal demand and actual demand, see “What is the difference between nominal demand and actual demand?”

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