美国南加州大学政治学ESSAY代写:公平分配选民

间谍活动常常导致一个政党的政客不成比例的当选。它创建了社会经济、种族或政治上相似的选民区,使得国会议员们远离潜在的挑战者,因此没有理由与来自另一方的同事妥协。这一进程的特点是秘密、自私自利,以及民选官员的秘密记录。纽约大学法学院布伦南司法中心重新分配和代表项目主任埃里卡·L·伍德写道。例如,在2012年国会选举中,共和党赢得了53%的民众选票,但在监督重新分配的州,共和党占据了众议院四分之三的席位。民主党人也是如此。在他们控制着划定国会选区边界的州,他们以只有56%的民众投票率获得了十分之七的席位。难道没有任何法律反对吗?美国最高法院在1964年作出裁决,要求在国会选区之间公平、公平地分配选民,但其裁决主要涉及每个选区的实际选民人数,以及他们是农村还是城市,而不是每个选区的党派或种族构成:“因为……公平、有效地代表全体公民是立法分配的基本目标,我们认为,平等保护条款保证了所有选民平等参与州立法者选举的机会。根据第十四条修正案,由于居住地而削弱投票权不仅损害了基本的宪法权利,也损害了基于种族或经济地位等因素的令人不快的歧视。托马斯在吸引国会选区时说,剥夺少数族裔“参与政治进程和选举他们选择的代表”的宪法权利是非法的。这项法律旨在结束对黑人的歧视,尤其是对南方黑人的歧视。内战之后。”根据布伦南司法中心的说法,在划定地区界线时,一个州可能把种族作为几个因素中的一个,但是没有令人信服的理由,种族就不能成为地区形状的“主要”原因。最高法院随后在2015年说,各州可以组成独立的、无党派的委员会来重新划定立法和国会的边界。对gerrymander的尝试十年只发生一次,几年后就以零收场。这是因为法律要求各州每10年根据十年一次的人口普查重新划定435个国会和立法边界。在美国人口普查局完成工作并开始向各州发送数据之后,重新分配的过程很快就开始了。重新分配必须及时完成2012次选举。重新划分是美国政治中最重要的过程之一。国会和立法边界的划分方式决定了谁赢得联邦和州选举,以及最终哪个政党拥有作出重要政策决定的权力。”普林斯顿大学选举联合会的创始人Sam Wang在2012年写道:“搞竞选并不难。”核心技术是阻止选民们倾向于让你的对手进入几处被抛弃的地区,而另一方将赢得不平衡的胜利,一种被称为“打包”的策略,安排其他边界来赢得密切的胜利,将反对派组织分裂成许多地区。

美国南加州大学政治学Essay代写:公平分配选民

Espionage often leads to a disproportionate election of a party’s politicians. It creates electoral districts that are socioeconomically, ethnically or politically similar, keeping members of Congress away from potential challengers, so there is no reason to compromise with colleagues from the other side. This process is characterized by secrecy, selfishness and secret records of elected officials. Erica L. Wood, director of the redistribution and representation program at Brennan Judicial Center, New York University School of Law, wrote. For example, in the 2012 congressional elections, the Republican Party won 53% of the popular vote, but in states supervising redistribution, the Republican Party occupied three-quarters of the seats in the House of Representatives. So do Democrats. In states where they control the boundaries of congressional constituencies, they won seven-tenths of the seats with only 56% of the votes. Is there no legal objection? In 1964, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that voters should be fairly and equitably distributed among congressional constituencies, but its ruling mainly concerned the actual number of voters in each constituency and whether they were rural or urban, rather than the party or ethnic composition of each constituency: “Because… Equitable and effective representation of all citizens is the basic goal of legislative distribution. We believe that the equal protection clause guarantees equal opportunities for all voters to participate in the election of state legislators. According to the Fourteenth Amendment, the weakening of the right to vote due to residence not only undermines basic constitutional rights, but also harms unpleasant discrimination based on factors such as race or economic status. In attracting congressional constituencies, Thomas said it was illegal to deprive minorities of their constitutional rights to “participate in the political process and elect their chosen representatives”. The law aims to end discrimination against blacks, especially southern blacks. After the civil war. ” According to the Brennan Judicial Center, race may be one of several factors in a state’s delimitation of regional boundaries, but without convincing reasons, race cannot be the “main” cause of regional shape. The Supreme Court then said in 2015 that states could form independent, non-partisan committees to redefine legislative and congressional boundaries. The attempt at gerrymander took place only once in a decade and ended in zero in a few years. This is because the law requires States to redefine 435 parliamentary and legislative boundaries every 10 years based on the 10-year census. After the Census Bureau finished its work and began sending data to the states, the redistribution process began very quickly. The redistribution must be completed in time for the 2012 elections. Redemarcation is one of the most important processes in American politics. The way Congress and legislative boundaries are divided determines who wins federal and state elections, and ultimately which party has the power to make important policy decisions.” Sam Wang, founder of the Princeton University Election Federation, wrote in 2012: “It’s not hard to run an election.” The core technology is to prevent voters from tending to let your opponents into several abandoned areas, while the other side will win unbalanced victories, a strategy known as “packaging”, arranging other borders to win close victories, and splitting opposition groups into many areas.

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