澳洲护理学论文代写:抑制癌细胞

最近,雷帕霉素类似物已被证明能够抑制癌细胞的生长得到乳腺癌,胰腺癌,前列腺癌,肺癌,rehabdomyosarcoma,胶质母细胞瘤、神经母细胞瘤、骨肉瘤、白血病和β-cell淋巴瘤。雷帕霉素是一种细胞抑制剂,在细胞周期的G1期起抑制作用。雷帕霉素的抗肿瘤活性是通过阻断mTOR通路发现的,由于雷帕霉素参与肿瘤发生和异常活化血管生成,被认为是治疗癌症的重要靶点[14-16]。雷帕霉素虽然具有较强的抗癌作用,但其生物利用度低、疏水性好,限制了其临床应用。在这样的环境下,不同的研究小组采用不同的纳米连接系统,以可控的方式,以更小的剂量、更长的时间提高雷帕霉素的治疗效果[2,18]。靶向给药载体的出现,改善了治疗剂和/或显像剂的治疗方式,通过主动靶向[1],严格将其药理活性定位于作用部位。纳米颗粒的表面装饰有外周配体,这些配体与肿瘤细胞中调节配体与受体相互作用的过度表达的受体特异性结合。人表皮生长因子受体2 (HER 2)、酪氨酸激酶跨膜受体在乳腺癌、胰腺癌、胃癌、胶质母细胞瘤、卵巢癌等多种肿瘤中均有高表达。人源化抗her2单克隆抗体(mAb)曲妥珠单抗(Herceptin)经美国食品和药物管理局(fda)批准用于临床试验,该抗体仅与HER2受体结合,可防止乳腺癌细胞生长。单抗靶向给药作为抗体介导药物给药的另一种途径,已引起人们的重视,为临床有效翻译化疗药物提供了新的途径.
澳洲护理学论文代写:抑制癌细胞
Recently, rapamycin and it analogs has been shown to inhibit the cancer cell growth obtained from breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, rehabdomyosarcoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, leukemia and β-cell lymphoma. Rapamycin is a cytostatic agent and it shows its function by arresting the cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. The antitumor activity of rapamycin is found by blocking mTOR pathway, proposed to be an important target for treatment of cancer due to its involvement in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis on aberrant activation [14-16]. In spite of having potent anticancer effects of rapamycin, the clinical application is restricted due to its low bioavailability and hydrophobic nature [17]. In this milieu, nowadays different nanoparticulate systems are being used by different group of researchers to improve the therapeutic efficacy of rapamycin with a smaller dose for longer period of time in a controlled manner [2, 18]. Targeted drug delivery vehicles are now emerged for improvement of treatment modality of the therapeutic agents and/or imaging agents strictly localising its pharmacological activity at the site of action through active targeting [1]. The surfaces of nanoparticles are decorated with peripheral ligands which bind specifically to the receptors those are over expressed in cancer cells arbitrating ligand-receptor interaction. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER 2), tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor are highly expressed in different types of cancers like breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer etc. Humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab (Herceptin) was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials and it exclusively binds to HER 2 receptors preventing the cell growth in breast cancers. Targeted drug delivery with the help of mAb has drawn attention as an alternative approach for antibody mediated drug delivery of the chemotherapeutic agents for effective clinical translation

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